I am most grateful to chairman Padraic Fallon, who was editor for many of the Orion years, for his insights and for access to past editions of Euromoney and other assistance.
After an era of considerable success in the s, the European consortium banks and banking clubs fell into abeyance by the end of the s; shareholder competition, deregulation, globalization and the Third World Debt crisis changed their world. It looked as though cross-border joint ventures in banking were a passing phase. But by the beginning of the twentyfirst century, a new type of association had emerged among international banks — specialized joint ventures with specific aims.
So consortium banks were reappearing, in a new form appropriate to the new age. Richard Roberts List of Tables 1. OPEC countries developed an elite of their own citizens to manage their petrodollars. Patrick Sergeant made Euromoney the authoritative voice of the Euromarkets. Tony Fell exemplified the convergence of investment and commercial banking. Evan Galbraith is said to have dreamt up the idea of floating rate notes in his bath. The money from LDC loans all too often ended up in off-shore bank accounts. Executives of Libra Bank — Latin American specialist and pioneer in loan trading.
Jock Finlayson steered Orion when it gave up consortium status. Periodic excesses in the FRN market cost traders dear. The Japanese took centre stage, until the bubble burst. Acknowledgements and Notes for End Papers and Plates The author is very grateful to the following publications, artists, photographers, publishers and other sources, as the case may be, for permission to reproduce images in the end papers and in the plates section. Every effort has been made to trace copyright owners but, if any have been overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangement at the first opportunity.
The author is grateful to the Centre for the Study of Cartoons and Caricature, University of Kent, Canterbury for access to its archives and for advice. All Rights Reserved [ upper J. Handelsman, ; lower Joseph Mirachi, ]. All Rights Reserved [William Hamilton, ].http://www.gyemantfelvasarlas.hu/includes/television/un-amor-de-cine-historias.php
Chase formed a consortium bank with Saudi partners and advised on the Saudi Industrial Development Fund [p. Many leading bankers felt that the market would disappear and gravitate back to New York [p. They were proved wrong. Risk averse and tax averse, he liked to invest in companies with household names. Later, institutions became more important than individuals as investors in the Eurobond market. Philip Hubbard went on to join the faculty of the Harvard Business School [p.
Trading Eurobonds before issue, he exposed and undermined the traditional pattern of fees, which fell from 2. He was active in making ties with central banks and monetary institutions around the world — a vital outlet for Eurobond placement.
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Acknowledgements and Notes for End Papers and Plates For most of the other consortium banks funding was a perennial nightmare, as they had no natural deposit base. It was here that the scramble for petrodollars often began [p.
Kuwait took advantage of the stock market crash to build a 21 per cent stake in BP, which the UK government forced it to reduce. Roy Jenkins right had given up the European Commission Presidency a few weeks previously; was he celebrating his freedom from multinational supervision? Within weeks, Orion gave up multinational ownership, when Royal Bank of Canada bought out its partners [p.
As his advisor, Orion helped sell the business to Thomson [p. The start of saw power cuts, fuel shortages, bank failures and a falling stock market in Britain, which nearly ran out of foreign exchange. Minos Zombanakis right put syndicated loans on to a new plane [p.
Consortium banks were market leaders in this business, until their shareholders found that they could do it themselves. Abdlatif Al-Hamad.
The convergence of investment and commercial banking was highlighted when Fell became Deputy Chairman of Royal Bank itself. Evan Galbraith [p. As a consortium bank dedicated to Latin America, it could not avoid large losses, but they were mitigated by profitable trading of loans [p. The speculative fever was fuelled by warrants, which enabled Japanese companies to borrow at negligible cost; some of them made more money out of speculation than manufacturing.
By the end of , the stock market had quadrupled over five years; then the bubble burst.
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It was spring in Manhattan, with clear skies and an unseasonably warm 78 degrees Fahrenheit. Senator Edward Kennedy was being questioned about the Chappaquiddick episode. Black Panthers were demonstrating in New Haven. The fashion pages featured midi-skirts and gaucho pants. Chase Manhattan Plaza, with its garden, its decorative water-pool, and its huge wafer-like black and white abstract sculptures by Jean Dubuffet, was thronged with financial district workers enjoying the sunshine and the warm weather.
Many of them worked in the adjacent tall tower of steel and smoked glass, the headquarters of Chase Manhattan Bank. In a room at the top of that building, a meeting was in progress where a powerful new international banking partnership was being forged — Orion. With the downtown canyons of Wall Street forming the backdrop through the big plate glass windows, David Rockefeller welcomed his guests and opened the proceedings.
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David Robarts was the first to initial the paper. He passed it on to Earle McLaughlin. Finally, David Rockefeller penned his endorsement and dated the document. The outcome six months later was Orion — at the time the most ambitious strategic alliance in international investment banking ever attempted. As the first step towards the creation of Orion, the signing ceremony on 29 April was a significant moment in the development of consortium banking and the transformation of the Euromarkets.
Eurodollars are deposits of US dollars with commercial banks or their branches situated outside the United States of America. At the outset, the Eurodollar market was made up of banks situated in European financial centres, mainly London, but also Paris, Brussels, Luxembourg and Switzerland. These banks, which included overseas branches of US banks, bid for US dollar deposits and offered loans in US dollars. These operations were conducted at the wholesale interbank level, in large amounts. The origin of the prefix Euro — meaning offshore — is uncertain. The word Eurodollar became well known in the early s, promoted by its usage by the British financial economist and author Paul Einzig.
The Euromarket is a generic term that encompasses bank lending in Eurocurrencies as well as other offshore financial instruments such as Eurobonds, Euronotes, Euroequities and Eurocommercial paper. Appropriate while Europe was the focus of the Euromarkets, the Euro prefix became inappropriate as the market became global in scope; not to mention the scope for confusion with the European single currency — the euro.
But it continues to be used. But the scale and scope of the Eurodollar markets were without precedent. The rise of a market for US dollars in Europe in the late s was the outcome of a combination of economic and political factors. But from the deficits mushroomed, causing mounting concern in the USA. The resulting rapidly growing pool of externally held dollars fostered the growth of a short-term money market in US dollars in Europe — the Eurodollar market.
These restrictions led UK banks to seek dollar deposits for use in international trade finance, being encouraged to do so by the Bank of England as a means of benefiting the UK balance of payments. This stimulated the emergence of an active Eurodollar market in London. The central banks of Germany, Italy, Japan and Switzerland furnished domestic commercial banks with dollars from their reserves through foreign currency swaps to achieve domestic monetary policy objectives. The Federal Reserve System, the US central banking organization, also played a part in promoting the development of the Eurodollar market through Regulation Q, which restricted the level of interest rates that US banks were permitted to pay on domestic deposits in the USA.
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The measure, introduced in the s during the slump to stimulate investment, encouraged holders of dollars, including US residents, to place them offshore where they could earn higher rates of interest. This boosted the growing pool of offshore dollars. Another factor that fostered the development of the Eurodollar market was the co-ordinated abolition of restrictions on the holding of foreign currencies by non-residents by the major members of the International Monetary Fund in December These ties extended the scope for the use of dollars for banking activities and as a complement to the national money markets.
By the beginning of the s, interest rates were regularly posted for offshore dollar deposits at a range of maturities.
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Being unconstrained by Regulation Q, they could pay higher rates to depositors than US domestic banks, thus attracting balances. They could also offer attractive rates to borrowers, since they were not party to the cartel agreements amongst the US domestic banks which constrained domestic interest payments, nor were they subject to official requirements regarding compensating balances, deposit insurance or reserves in relation to foreign currency liabilities. In the USA, the relatively low rate of interest paid to depositors, because of Regulation Q, together with the relatively high rates charged to borrowers, determined by the level of the US prime rate plus institutional and administrative factors, provided a domestic market spread of 3.
Similar distortions in European domestic banking markets also favoured the Eurodollar market. The post-war system of fixed exchange rates provided a positive context for the early development of the offshore dollar market. Fixed exchange rates meant minimal currency risk, which encouraged European banks and the European branches or subsidiaries of US banks to develop dollar-based banking business.
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The stability of the Bretton Woods System allowed them to take advantage of the competitive advantages that they enjoyed relative to US domestic banks, both in terms of attracting dollar deposits and in dollar lending. Since Eurodollar business was focused in stable locations and confined to prime banking counterparties — leading European banks and the foreign branches or subsidiaries of major US banks — the higher returns were available without the assumption of greater market or political risk.
The Euromarkets provided energetic and innovative bankers with a playground in which they could create new products relatively free of official controls or cartel arrangements.